There can be learning difficulties associated with hydrocephalus such as problems with concentration, reasoning and short-term memory. Hydrocephalus can also result in subtle effects: giving problems with co-ordination, motivation and organisational skills. Physical effects such as visual problems, or early puberty in children, may also occur.

Many of these effects can be overcome with teaching strategies or treatment where relevant. It must be stressed that the effects of hydrocephalus vary from one individual to another and some people will have very few, if any problems.